中華始祖——黃帝和炎帝Earliest Ancestor of the Chinese Nation-Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) and Yandi (Red Emperor)
黃帝和炎帝是中華民族的共同祖先，海內外的中國人都稱自己為“炎黃子孫”。 據傳說和古書記載，黃帝是中國歷史上第一個帝王，姓姬，號軒轅氏或有熊氏。炎帝也是傳說中的一個帝王，姓姜，號烈山氏或神農氏。 黃帝和炎帝都生活在距今4,000多年前中國原始社會后期，是兩個部落的首領。當時，黃帝部落和炎帝部落都居住在現在陜西省境內的黃河邊上。后來，又先后沿黃河兩岸向東部遷移。為了爭奪一塊土地，炎帝族同住在中國東部的九黎族發生了戰爭。九黎族的首領蚩尤(ch1y)打敗了炎帝族。炎帝族向黃帝求援，他們聯合起來打敗了蚩尤。九黎族失敗后，一部分逃到了南方，另一部分加入了炎黃二族。后來，炎帝族和黃帝族也發生了沖突，炎帝族失敗后，加入了黃帝部落，由此黃帝族的力量增大。后來，黃帝族、炎帝族和九黎族的一部分在黃河流域定居下來，繁衍生息，構成了華夏族的主干。他們共同開發了黃河中下游地區，使這里成為中國古代文化的搖籃。從此，這些來自不同部落的居民，都認為自己是黃帝和炎帝的后代，稱自己為“炎黃子孫”。 據說，黃帝生下來就非常聰明，當了部落首領后，便教人們建筑房屋、喂養家畜、種植五谷，他還發明了車、船、樂器和文字等。黃帝的妻子嫘祖(leizu)發明了養蠶、抽絲和織錦。炎帝創造了農具，指導人們進行農業生產，他還親嘗百草，發現了治病的藥材。聰明能干、熱心為大家辦事的黃帝和炎帝，深受人們愛戴，他們一直被當作中華民族的杰出代表，成為中華民族的共同祖先。 現在，在陜西省黃陵縣松柏常青的橋山上，還保留？黃帝陵和黃帝廟。湖南省炎陵縣也保留？炎帝陵。黃帝和炎帝的子孫們，世世代代緬懷這兩位中華民族的共同始祖。
Earliest Ancestor of the Chinese Nation-Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) and Yandi (Red Emperor)
Huangdi and Yandi were the common ancestors of the Chinese nation, and Chinese people at home and abroad all call themselves "descendents of Yandi and Huangdi".
As recorded in legends and ancient books, Huangdi was the first emperor in Chinese history. His surname was Ji, and his assumed name Xuanyuan Shi or Youxiong Shi. Yandi was also a legendary ruler whose surname was Jiang and assumed name Lieshan Shi or Shennong Shi.
Huangdi and Yandi both lived in the late period of China's primitive society about 4,000 years ago, and were the leaders of two different tribes living along the Yellow River in present-day Shaanxi Province. Later, they expanded their territories along both sides of the Yellow River to the east. The Yandi had invaded the territory of another tribe, the Jiuli, whose leader was Chiyou. The result was a defeat for the Yandi, who then sought help from the Huangdi tribe, and together they defeated Chiyou. After the defeat, some people of the Jiuli fled to the south, while others were assimilated into the Yandi or Huangdi tribes. The alliance did not last and eventually, fighting broke out that led to the Huangdi defeating the Yandi, whose members were forced to join and thus further strengthen the power of the Huangdi tribe. Later, segments of the three tribes (Huangdi, Yandi and Jiuli) settled down in the Yellow River valley, where they began to develop China's ancient culture and eventually formed the mainstay of what we know today as the Chinese people. It is from this time that people began to call themselves "the descendents of Yandi and Huangdi"
Huangdi was born clever. After he became the tribal leader, he taught people how to build houses, breed livestock and grow food crops, and invented the cart, boat, musical instrument and written characters. His wife, Leizu, discovered how to breed silkworms, how to reel off raw silk from cocoons, and how to brocade. Yandi, meanwhile, invented various farm implements and taught his people how to engage in agricultural production. He tasted all kinds of plants and discovered various medicinal materials for treating diseases. At present, there are still preserved the Mausoleum and the Temple of the Yellow Emperor on Qiaoshan Mountain planted with evergreen pines and cypresses in Huangling County, Shaanxi Province. And in Yanling County, Hunan Province, the Mausoleum of the Red Emperor is also well preserved. Later generations greatly cherished their memory.