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      2. 中國華文教育網
        中國境內最早的人類The Earliest Human Beings in China
        2010年04月19日 17:03





          中國是世界文明古國,也是人類的發源地之一。中國到目前為止是世界上發現舊石器時代的人類化石和文化遺址最多的國家,其中重要的有元謀人、藍田人、北京人、山頂洞人等。 元謀人 1965年,在云南省元謀縣,考古人員發現了兩顆遠古人類的牙齒和一些粗糙的石器。 經科學家鑒定,這是遠古人類的遺骨、遺物,距今大約170萬年。在元謀發現的遠古人類我們稱為元謀人。元謀人是中國境內目前發現的最早的人類。 北京人 1929年,在北京西南周口店龍骨山山洞里發現了遠古人類的頭蓋骨,后來在這個遺址中又先后發現了五個頭蓋骨。在這里發現的遠古人類我們稱為北京人。北京人生活在距今約70萬年至20萬年,他們保留了猿的某些特點,但已經能夠使用工具勞動。北京人把石塊敲打成粗糙的石器,還把樹枝砍成木棒,用來采集植物,捕捉動物,加工食物。北京人已經會使用天然火。火的使用是人類進化過程中的一個很大的進步。 山頂洞人 1930年,在北京西南周口店龍骨山頂部的山洞里,發現了距今約18,000年的人類遺骨。我們把他們稱作山頂洞人。山頂洞人的模樣和現代人基本一樣。 山頂洞人用的還是打制石器,但有的制作很精細。他們已經懂得磨制和鉆孔技術,會制造骨針等骨器,會用骨針縫制獸皮衣服,還會用有鉆孔的獸骨、獸牙、石珠、海蚶(han)殼做裝飾品。他們已懂得人工取火,靠采集植物、打獵、捕魚得到食物。 山頂洞人按母親的血緣關系組成氏族。同一氏族的成員居住在一起,共同勞動,共同分配食物。

          The Earliest Human Beings in China

          China is not only a country with an ancient civilization, it is also one of the birthplaces of the human race. China so far ranks first in the number of human fossils and cultural sites dating from the Paleolithic Period, among which there were traces of Yuanmou Man, Lantian Man, Peking Man and Upper Cave Man. Yuanmou Man In 1965, archeologists found two ancient human teeth and some rough stone tools in Yuanmou County, Yunnan Province. After examination, it was confirmed that they dated back some 1,700,000 years, making Yuanmou Man the earliest human found in China so far. Peking Man In 1929, human skulls were found in caves on Mount Longgu in Zhoukoudian, in southwest Beijing. Later, five more human skulls were found there. They were determined to be relics of Peking Man, who lived around 700,000 to 200,000 years ago. Peking man had some ape-like characteristics, but he mastered the arts of making and using tools. He chipped stones into rough implements and chopped tree branches into sticks to gather vegetation, hunt animals and process food. He also learned to use natural fire, which marks a milestone on human evolution. Upper Cave Man In 1930, human bones dating from about 18,000 years ago were found in caves near the top of Mount Longgu in Zhoukoudian. Upper Cave Man's appearance would have been almost the same as that of modern man. Upper Cave Man also used chipped stone tools, some of which were exquisitely made, and the tools show that he had already mastered grinding and drilling techniques. He made bone needles to sew animal skins to make clothing, and used animal bones and teeth, stone beads and shells as ornaments. He knew how to make fire, and got food from gathering, hunting and fishing. The Upper Cave people formed the matriarchal clans. Clan members lived together, worked together and shared their food.